After Dev Blog #4 explained the principles behind the technology that allows us to show a huge game world, this development blog post will uncover how we intend to fill this huge world with content.

Crafting or Computing, That is the Question

Huge game worlds are not very common in gaming since they are hard to do both from a technical perspective and a content perspective. There are 2 extremes in creating a world in game development:

The first option is to hand-craft every piece of content inside your game. If you have the manpower, money and organization, you can create incredibly detailed and huge game worlds. You only have to look at GTA 5 to see what’s possible in that respect.

If you are short on artists but have very clever programmers, you can try and go for the other extreme: procedural generation. Here the computer itself runs through all kinds of sophisticated algorithms to calculate what the game’s content should be for a particular time and place in the game world. This approach is what allows a game like Elite: Dangerous to offer its players a huge universe of 400 billion star systems to fly around in.

In Chain of Command we want to have maps that show a a large amount of detail and are historically accurate. For a small independent developer like BitBunch hand-crafting all these maps ourselves at the detail level we desire is not an option. It would take too long and cost too much money to do it like this.

The option of procedurally generating the maps is not feasible either. Procedural generation is a great way to produce a lot of content quickly, but coming up with procedural generation techniques that would produce historically accurate maps is very, very hard, if not impossible. Procedural generation can produce detailed maps that would not be very accurate, which is great for tactical games where you fight for control over a small patch of terrain, but it doesn’t work for an operational game like Chain of Command where we want cities, rivers and other major geographic features to be present in the correct locations.

The solution to our problems is to do a bit of both: we start out with accurate map data and use procedural generation techniques to fill in the details. Where do we find this map data? The answer can be found here: the OpenStreetMap project.

Open Data To The Rescue!

OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a geographic database created by a community of contributors and is made available under an open data license. This means that everyone can freely use the data for whatever they want. OpenStreetMap has been around for a long time and the quality and detail of the data in the map has increased substantially over the years.

Because we have worked with OSM data in the past and already have several tried and tested tools to convert it for use in 3D applications, we quickly settled on using OSM data as the “base map source” for Chain of Command.

The full OSM database can be obtained from various sources. Depending on the format chosen to download, it can vary in size from 30 GB up to 550 GB(!). Our tools are able to process the highly compressed 30 GB version so we start our conversion by downloading the necessary files in that format.

Hills and Valleys

Great as it is, the data from OpenStreetMap alone is not sufficient to generate a 3D world as we envision it. It simply lacks the height information needed to show hills, valleys, mountains and cliffs. Luckily there is a solution for that as well: back in the year 2000, when the new millennium had barely started, the space shuttle Endeavour flew the so-called “Shuttle Radar Topography Mission” or SRTM for short. The data gathered during this mission is now open and provides us with height data that covers almost the entire world.

By combining the data from OSM with the data from SRTM, “Metis” (the engine we are developing to drive the game), is able to produce a visual representation of any spot on the Earth where we have sufficient data coverage. Luckily for us, the major battlefields of World War 2 happen to have this coverage.

Recipe for 3D

OSM data comes in 3 types: nodes, which are simply points at specific locations on the Earth; ways, which are groups of points that define a feature, like a road, building or forest area; and relations, which are used to define more complex features consisting of multiple ways and/or nodes. Each data element has a set of tags that define what it represents in the real world. For example, all buildings have the tag “building” attached to them.

In the first processing step, all this information is converted into three kinds of geometry: points, lines and polygons.

As explained in Dev Blog #4, the Metis engine requires the data to be subdivided into tiles at several levels of detail in order to visualize it in real-time, so the second processing step does just that:
It partitions the points, lines and polygons into tiles and creates multiple levels of detail. For low detail levels, small features that cannot be seen from afar are simply discarded. Larger features are first simplified so that smaller details that cannot be seen are removed, while the general shape is preserved. This process ensures that tiles at lower detail level, although covering a greater surface area, have more or less the same size as tiles at higher detail levels. This is an important condition for the engine to be able to visualize everything in real-time.

The third processing step converts these geometries into several groups and each group gets its own special treatment:
Forest areas, for instance, get tagged with a special code that triggers the engine to generate trees in those areas; building footprints are turned into 3D models and placed at the correct height based on the terrain information from SRTM.

The final processing step produces the game files used by the engine by combining and compressing the generated data. The entire process can be summed up like this:

Rewinding the Clock

“But wait!”, I hear you say, “this is all fine if you want to visualize the Earth as it is TODAY, but this is not what it looked like during World War 2!”. And you’re absolutely right about this! 75 years ago, there were no highways to quickly drive from Luxembourg to Brussels and most cities were much smaller than they are today.

rewinding-the-clock

Since our tools produce data based on the input from OSM and SRTM, the only thing we need to do, is to modify the source data so it matches the situation during World War 2. Using historical maps and other sources we can modify the source data so it contains features matching the historical situation. Using this historical database, the tools will then produce a historical 3D map.

For the SRTM height data, this problem is less pronounced, since most mountains are still where they were back then as are most valleys and hills, so corrections for this data will be needed less frequently

Returning the Favor

The maps of World War 2 we produce in this manner will become open data just like the data we use from OpenStreetMap. Its open data license clearly specifies that creating a “derived work” from it, requires that “work” to be available to everyone under the same license. In this case, our map definitely constitutes a “derived work” and so will be made available to the public.

The Final Result

The following movie shows what happens when the player zooms into the battlefield starting from a very high altitude. The area shown is approximately 310 kilometers wide (from West to East) and 275 kilometers high (from North to South).

Share:
  • Ben Stanley

    Very interesting – Got a few questions but first some info for you guys –
    So the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission recently did a 30m scan of the Earth. This might be useful to you guys over at bitbunch.

    Details on the data availability -> http://www.digital-geography.com/announcement-realease-worldwide-high-resultion-srtm-data-30m/

    Anyway questions –

    1. Do you have any plans to make the Metis engine open source?
    2. Do you have any plans for Modding tools for Chain of Command?

    That said – Looks good so far. Cannot wait to see gameplay 🙂

    • Faude

      Hi Ben,
      True, and we already use the 1 arc (~30 mtr) set which was sourced in February 2000. You are right, it only recently became publicly available. It is very useful, much better than the 90 mtr set we used before although it contains a bit more artefacts.

      Your questions:
      1. We currently have no plans for Metis outside BitBunch/Organic Vectory. This may change in the future, but for now we concentrate on its use for “Chain of Command”.
      2. We definitely have loads of ideas for involving the community in creating content. This could certainly mean providing tooling. Among of those ideas are editing/creating the OOBs and improving GIS data to bring it up to date with the 1939-1945 era.